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Rusya’yı Rusya Yapan İki İsim

The reigns of two rulers within the Romanov dynasty are particularly notable for transforming Russia into a powerful European state – Peter the Great (1682-1725) and Catherine II (1762-1796). Catherine II completed what Peter started, who primarily aimed to strengthen internal development. Peter, also known as Mad Peter, aspired to turn Russia, a landlocked empire, into a maritime nation, focusing on accessing the Baltic and Black Seas. He believed this sea access crucial for Russia’s empowerment. However, at that time, the Swedish ruled the Baltic Sea, and the Ottoman Empire dominated the Black Sea. Therefore, Peter’s struggle to access the seas mainly involved conflicts with these two powers. Following the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, Russia gained the city of Azov on the Black Sea coast but unfortunately had to return it to the Ottoman Empire as per the Treaty of Prut in 1711.